Chemical compound

Sodium oxide is a chemical compound with the formula Na2O. It is used in ceramics and glasses. The compound is the base anhydride of sodium hydroxide; when water is added to sodium oxide, NaOH is produced.

Na2O + H2O → 2 NaOH

The alkali metal oxides M2O (M = Li, Na, K, Rb) crystallise in the antifluorite structure. In this motif the positions of the anions and cations are reversed relative to their positions in CaF2, with sodium ions tetrahedrally coordinated to 4 oxide ions and oxide cubically coordinated to 8 sodium ions.[3][4]

Preparation

Sodium oxide is produced by the reaction of sodium with sodium hydroxide, sodium peroxide, or sodium nitrite:[5]

2 NaOH + 2 Na → 2 Na2O + H2
Na2O2 + 2 Na → 2 Na2O
2 NaNO2 + 6 Na → 4 Na2O + N2

Most of these reactions rely on the reduction of something by sodium, whether it is hydroxide, peroxide, or nitrite.

Burning sodium in air will produce Na2O and about 20% sodium peroxide Na2O2.

6 Na + 2 O2 → 2 Na2O + Na2O2

A more accessible way of producing it in the laboratory consists in decomposing sodium ascorbate at temperatures over 209 degrees Celsius.

Applications

Glassmaking

Sodium oxide is a component of most glass, although it is added in the form of "soda" (sodium carbonate). Typically, manufactured glass contains around 15% sodium oxide, 70% silica (silicon dioxide) and 9% lime (calcium oxide). The sodium carbonate "soda" serves as a flux to lower the temperature at which the silica mixture melts. Soda glass has a much lower melting temperature than pure silica, and has slightly higher elasticity. These changes arise because the silicon dioxide and soda have reacted to form sodium silicates of the general formula Na2[SiO2]x[SiO3].

Na2CO3 → Na2O + CO2
Na2O + SiO2 → Na2SiO3
Na2CO3 + SiO2 → Na2SiO3 + CO2

References

  1. ^ a b Zumdahl, Steven S. (2009). Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. A23. ISBN 978-0-618-94690-7.
  2. ^ Sigma-Aldrich Co., Sodium oxide. Retrieved on 2014-05-25.
  3. ^ Zintl, E.; Harder, A.; Dauth B. (1934). "Gitterstruktur der oxyde, sulfide, selenide und telluride des lithiums, natriums und kaliums". Z. Elektrochem. Angew. Phys. Chem. 40: 588–93. doi:10.1002/bbpc.19340400811 (inactive 28 February 2022).{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of February 2022 (link)
  4. ^ Wells, A. F. (1984) Structural Inorganic Chemistry, Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-855370-6.
  5. ^ Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8.

External links